День еврейской истории: 30 ноября 1215 года.

30 ноября 1215 года папская булла ввела в действие решения IV Латеранского собора относительно евреев.

67-70 Каноны Латеранского Собора, столь странные для нас сегодня, в точности отражали реальные условия, в которые христианское общество поставило евреев.

Евреям запрещалось вступать в экономические отношения с христианами. Только некоторые сферы финансово-экономической деятельности оставались для них открытыми, в частности, ссужение денег под проценты — это занятие считалось предосудительным для христиан.

Евреи отныне должны были носить особую одежду, отличавшую их от христиан. Обязательным стало ношение отличительного знака установленного цвета. На практике такой знак представлял из себя кусок желтой или малиновой ткани — в Англии в виде двух скрижалей с десятью заповедями, во Франции, в Германии и других странах — в форме круга. В некоторых странах, где простой значок был сочтен недостаточным, евреям было предписано также ношение шляпы установленного цвета. Собор запретил христианам брать евреев на государственные должности, тем самым ограничивая сферу еврейской деятельности мелкой коммерцией, ссужением денег под проценты, бартерными сделками и торговлей антиквариатом.

Именно с этих пор, когда евреи уже не могли заниматься ремеслом, земледелием, медициной, складывается образ еврея-ростовщика.

Целью всех этих предписаний было навечно заклеймить евреев как народ париев, отметить каждого еврея как объект для постоянных насмешек, а всю общину — как объект для нападения и резни при любой вспышке недовольства масс.


День 30 ноября 1947 года считается началом Войны за независимость Израиля. На следующий день после резолюции ООН по разделу Палестины на еврейское и арабское государства, в районе Лода арабские боевики обстреляли из автоматов и закидали гранатами два рейсовых автобуса еврейской автобусной компании «Эггед». В результате этого 5 человек были убиты.
Ровно через год, 30 ноября 1948-го, Израиль подал заявку на вступление в ООН, но принят не был, не хватило одного голоса. Членом ООН Эрец Изрэль стала 13 мая 1949 года.
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